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Piezonuclear Fission Reactions in Rocks: Evidences from Microchemical Analysis, Neutron Emission, and Geological Transformation

Rock Mechanics and Rocks Engineering - Springer

A. Carpinteri, G. Lacidogna, A. Manuello & O. Borla

Abstract: Neutron emission measurements, by means of He3 devices and bubble detectors, were performed during three different kinds of compression tests on brittle rocks:

(1) under monotonic displacement control, (2) under cyclic loading, and (3) by ultrasonic vibration.

The material used for the tests was Luserna Stone. Since the analyzed material contains iron, our conjecture is that piezonuclear reactions involving fission of iron into aluminum, or into magnesium and silicon, should have occurred during compression damage and failure. This hypothesis is confirmed by the direct evidence of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy tests conducted on Luserna Stone specimens. It is also interesting to emphasize that the anomalous chemical balances of the major events that have affected the geomechanical and geochemical evolution of the Earth’s crust should be considered as an indirect evidence of the piezonuclear fission reactions considered above.

Keywords Neutron emission  Piezonuclear reactions Rocks crushing failure  Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy  Plate tectonics  Element evolution

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Geomechanical and Geochemical Evidence of Piezonuclear Fission Reactions in the Earth’s Crust

Strain (2011) 47 (Suppl. 2), 267-281 - Blackwell Publishing

A. Carpinteri and A. Manuello
Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering & Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy

Abstract: Piezonuclear reactions, which occur in inert and non-radioactive elements, are induced by high pressure and, in particular, by brittle fracture phenomena in solids under compression. These low-energy reactions generally take place in nuclei with an atomic weight that is lower or equal to that of iron (Fe). The experimental evidence, obtained from repeatable measurements of neutron emissions [Strain 45, 2009, 332; Strain (in press); Phys. Lett. A. 373, 2009, 4158], can be also recognised considering the anomalous chemical balances of the major events that have affected the Earth’s crust, oceans and atmosphere, over the last 4 billion years. These anomalies include (i) abrupt variations in the most abundant elements in correspondence with the formation of tectonic plates; (ii) the ‘Great Oxidation Event’ (2.7–2.4 billion years ago), with a sharp increase in atmospheric oxygen and the subsequent origin of life; (iii) the current climate acceleration partially because of ‘carbon pollution’. Natural piezonuclear reactions are induced by fault sliding and plate subduction phenomena.

Keywords: carbon pollution, element evolution, Great Oxidation Event, neutron emissions, piezonuclear reactions, plate tectonics, rocks crushing



Compositional and Microchemical Evidence of Piezonuclear Fission Reactions in Rock Specimens Subjected to Compression Tests

Strain (2011) 47 (Suppl. 2), 282-292 - Blackwell Publishing

A. Carpinteri*, A. Chiodoni†, A. Manuello* and R. Sandrone‡
*Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering & Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
†Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Space Human Robotics, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino, Italy
‡Politecnico di Torino, Department of Land, Environment and Geo-Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy

Abstract: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is performed on different samples of external or fracture surfaces belonging to specimens used in piezonuclear tests [Strain 45, 2009, 332; Strain (in press); Phys. Lett. A. 373, 2009, 4158]. For each sample, different measurements of the same crystalline phases (phengite or biotite) are performed to obtain averaged information of the chemical composition and to detect possible piezonuclear transmutations from iron to lighter elements. The samples were carefully chosen to investigate and compare the same minerals both before and after the crushing failure. Phengite and biotite, which are quite common in the Luserna stone (20 and 2%, respectively), are considered owing to the high iron concentration in their chemical compositions. The results of EDS analyses show that, on the fracture surface samples, a considerable reduction in the iron content (25%) is counterbalanced by an increase in Al, Si, and Mg concentrations.

Keywords: compressive tests, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, piezonuclear reactions



Piezonuclear neutrons from fracturing of inert solids

Physics Letters A Volume 373, Issue 45 - 2 November 2009 - Elsevier

F. Cardone a,b, A. Carpinteric,∗, G. Lacidognac
a Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN-CNR), Via dei Taurini 19, 00185 Roma, Italy
b Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Amaldi”, Università degli Studi “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale, 84-00146 Roma, Italy
c Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy

Abstract: Neutron emission measurements by means of helium-3 neutron detectors were performed on solid test specimens during crushing failure. The materials used were marble and granite, selected in that they present a different behaviour in compression failure (i.e., a different brittleness index) and a different iron content. All the test specimens were of the same size and shape. Neutron emissions from the granite test specimens were found to be of about one order of magnitude higher than the natural background
level at the time of failure. These neutron emissions should be caused by nucleolysis or piezonuclear fission that occurred in the granite, but did not occur in the marble. The present natural abundance of aluminum (7.8% in the Earth crust), which is less favoured than iron from a nuclear point of view, is possibly due to the above piezonuclear fission reaction. Despite the apparently low statistical relevance of the results presented in this Letter, it is useful to present them in order to give to other teams the possibility to repeat the experiment

Keywords: Neutron emission Piezonuclear reactions Rocks crushing failure Strain localization Material interpenetration